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Hydrogenosomes and Mitosomes: Mitochondria of Anaerobic Eukaryotes
Edouard Jurkevitch. Edward Schwartz. Nami Tatsumi. Birgit Kamm. Dietrich H. Eun Yeol Lee. Michael Hippler. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide.
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Description Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Microbiology and Infection Control for Health Professionals. In Stock. The Psychobiotic Revolution. Complete loss of the capacity for independent life, together with cell-to-cell transmission through the germ line, completes the conversion of a bacterial mutualist to an organelle. Mitochondria and chloroplasts differ from bacterial progenitors in that their genomes are greatly reduced, which explains failed attempts at independent cultivation. Rickettsia has about genes; mitochondria have between 3 and 97, depending on the organism.
A relatively minimal cyanobacterium has genes; chloroplasts have no more than Many of these genes aren't lost, it turns out, but rather have relocated. Eukaryotic genome sequences reveal that some of the missing organellar genes can be found in the nuclear DNA, indicating a transfer of information. Indeed, this gene transfer from organelles to the nucleus is so active that it can readily be measured in the laboratory. Several studies have introduced marker genes into mitochondria and chloroplasts and monitored their rate of appearance in the nuclear genome. Results indicate that the transfer is quite high.
And, with an active process it becomes possible to envision a ratchet mechanism for gene swapping. Organellar genes that take care of an overall cellular function can replace their counterparts in the genome as one gene becomes deleted by random mutation. Similarly, genes needed for organellar function can become transferred to the nuclear genome and incorporated there, provided the encoded protein acquires the signal needed to traffic it back to the organelle.
Hydrogenosomes and Mitosomes: Mitochondria of Anaerobic Eukaryotes : Jan Tachezy :
Over eons, the process has reduced the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes but not completely eradicated them. The same might not be said for other organelles. Remarkably, two structures appear to have evolved from mitochondria by losing all their DNA, either by deletion or transfer to the nuclear genome. Each of these organelles, the hydrogenosomes and mitosomes, appear in eukaryotic parasites that live in anaerobic environments and no longer need the mitochondria's respiratory functions. The hydrogenosome was the first organelle proposed to be a mitochondrial descendent lacking its own genome.
Hydrogenosomes are surrounded by a double membrane and participate in energy metabolism, yet they lack a genome, have some differences in membrane architecture, and do not participate in respiration. Instead, hydrogenosomes direct substrate-level phosphorylation, an anaerobic form of energy generation.
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Despite these differences, the case for mitochondria as the hydrogenosome's precursor is strong. The genes that encode organelle proteins can be traced to mitochondrial relatives that now reside in the nuclear genome. The encoded proteins traffic back to the organelles, directed by short peptides that resemble mitochondrial trafficking signals. These sequences are functionally interchangeable in the laboratory.