He had worked with then Governor Franklin Roosevelt in New York, and the two became good friends, with Hopkins serving as Roosevelt's chief advisor and confidant throughout his administration. Hopkins sprang into action less than a week after Roosevelt's inauguration, approaching Roosevelt's secretary of labor, Frances Perkins, with a plan for a program of federal relief. Impressed, Perkins agreed to take the proposal to Roosevelt, who quickly agreed to the plan. The president told the Washington newcomer two things: give immediate and adequate relief to the unemployed, and pay no attention to politics or politicians.
Hopkins did just that.
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Thirty minutes later, seated at a makeshift desk in a hallway. Even more important, FERA established the doctrine that adequate public relief was a right that citizens in need could expect to received from their government. Hopkins p. FERA had three primary objectives: 1 Adequacy of relief measures; 2 providing work for employable people on the relief rolls; and 3 diversification of relief programs.
FERA accepted as elementary that all needy persons and their dependents should receive sufficient relief to prevent physical suffering and to maintain a minimum standard of living. It has been estimated that during this period of relief, roughly three-fourths of the heads of families on relief were employable. They may not have been generally employable in private industry due to age, but they were considered employable by FERA.
The FERA's goals for work relief included not only genuine work as opposed to "make work projects" but also work opportunities that were sufficiently diversified to give relief workers employment in line with their previous job experience. The working conditions and wages also had to be in line with those found in the private sector.
The purpose of FERA was to work cooperatively with state government, providing federal grants for relief purposes. Grant applications required that states were to provide information on the amounts necessary to meet relief needs in the state and the amounts available from public and private sources within the state to contribute toward those relief needs.
States also were to provide information on provisions made to assure adequate administrative supervision of the funds, the methods by which adequate relief levels would be assured, and the purposes for which the funds would be used. The most pressing problem for FERA at first was to build up adequate local relief organizations.
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Few of the existing state relief agencies had been in existence for more than 7 or 8 months at the time of creation of FERA. Those state relief agencies that were deemed to be inadequate or flawed in some way had to be overhauled to meet the requirements of FERA.
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Most states had little experience with running genuine work relief programs and almost no experience in providing appropriate work for white-collar workers. Despite directives and orders issued in , states and localities were not quick to cooperate by accepting federal projects. Either through inertia or a desire to institute projects of purely local interest and benefit, state involvement in work relief programs were slow to start in Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of , FERA institute the Civil Works Administration CWA as a short-term measure to get people to work.
This program continued and expanded many of the projects begun under the CWA. The bulk of the work relief projects, were engineering and construction oriented. Other projects included sanitation improvements, repair or construction of public buildings, national park improvements, real property surveys, library projects, art and theater projects, and archeological excavations. In Seattle, it built the Montlake playfield field house and the Montlake Community Clubhouse, which has since acquired the name "Tudor Building," after its architecture.
Other projects in Washington were of an agricultural nature.
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Among these were a rural electric survey of the state, research on the development of new fruit by-products, research to determine the vitamin C content in Washington apples, a survey of part-time farming, and research on the use of by-products of the fishing industry as feed for the poultry industry. The Emergency Work Relief Program provided for three special classes of projects for white-collar workers: 1 Planning; 2 public health, welfare and recreation; 3 education, arts and research.
Much of the criticism. Shortly after the FERA was initiated we attempted to do something for this group of needy teachers. Obviously it was hardly enough to give them direct relief. With thousands of teachers out of work there were, at the same time, hundreds of thousands of men and women in need of educational facilities. We decided to put these unemployed teachers to work teaching those unemployed who wanted instruction. In March , at the peak of the emergency education program, more than 44, persons were employed and the number of pupils was slightly higher than 1,, Each state could choose to develop or emphasize any or all of the following, depending on local conditions: 1 General adult education; 2 literary classes for adults; 3 vocational education; 4 vocational rehabilitation; and 5 nursery schools for pre-school children from underprivileged homes.
Another part of the emergency education program was the college student aid program.
It provided part-time employment for those college students who would otherwise have been unable to continue their education. The projects for the students were planned and supervised in large part by the college authorities. Funds through the emergency education program were made available for student employment at Washington State University WSU in Pullman from to What about on a scale of spicy to citrus? Is it more like a lava lamp or a mosaic?
Pain, though a universal element of human experience, is dimly understood and sometimes barely managed. Sonya Huber moves away from a linear narrative to step through the doorway into pain itself, into that strange, unbounded reality. Huber addresses the nature and experience of invisible disability, including the challenges of gender bias in our health care system, the search for effective treatment options, and the difficulty of articulating chronic pain.
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She makes pain a lens of inquiry and lyricism, finds its humor and complexity, describes its irascible character, and explores its temperature, taste, and even its beauty. Praise "If this isn't the book that we in the pain community need in , I don't know what is.
With ardor and valor, Huber renders the lived experience of chronic pain and all that attends it in a language all her own, written—as she so wonderfully phrases it—using 'pain's alphabet.